تاریخچه کامپیوتر در ایران http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com 2020-03-26T14:20:50+01:00 text/html 2010-11-03T19:10:07+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی MS-DOS http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/13 <B><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif"><FONT size=4><B><B> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif"><FONT size=4><B><A class=image href="http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%BE%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87:Msdosir.gif"><IMG class=thumbimage style="WIDTH: 334px; HEIGHT: 217px" height=133 alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/fa/thumb/9/93/Msdosir.gif/220px-Msdosir.gif" width=220></A></B></FONT></FONT></P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif"><FONT size=4><B>ام-‌اس-داس</B> (به انگلیسی: <SPAN class="spanen spanen" lang=en dir=rtl xml:lang="en"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: tahoma"><I><B>MS-DOS</B></I></SPAN></SPAN>) (کوتاه شدهٔ <B>M</B>icro<B>s</B>oft <B>D</B>isk <B>O</B>perating <B>S</B>ystem) یک سیستم‌عامل تجاری مایکروسافت می‌باشد.</FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>اولین نسخهٔ ام‌اس-داس در سال ۱۹۸۱ منتشر شد و شامل هشت نسخه اصلی است و مایکروسافت توسعهٔ آن را در سال ۲۰۰۰ متوقف کرد. سیستم‌عامل تک کاربره و تک کاره با خط فرمانی که در سال ۱۹۸۱ برای کامپیوتر شخصی آی‌بی‌ام و سازگار با آن توسط مایکروسافت منتشر شد. نسخه اصلی DOS توسط یک شرکت کوچک در سیاتل به منظور کارهای آزمایشگاهی ایجاد شده بود. از آنجا که مایکروسافت قرار بود سیستم‌عاملی برای آی‌بی‌ام تهیه کند بنابراین آن نسخه را خریداری نمود و برنامه را تهیه کرد. مایکروسافت بعدها نگارشهای بالاتری از داس ارائه نمود. داس تا مدتها یکی از گسترده‌ترین سیستم‌های عامل محسوب می‌شد. DOS کوتاه شده کلمات Disk operating system (سیستم‌عامل دیسکی ) می با شد از آنجا که این سیستم بر روی دیسک قرار گرفته وبه طور مرتب از دیسک سخت انجام اعمال مختلف استفاده می نماید به این نام مصطلح شده است .</FONT></P> <H2><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif"><FONT size=4>&nbsp;<SPAN class=mw-headline id=.D9.88.D8.B8.D8.A7.DB.8C.D9.81_.D8.B3.DB.8C.D8.B3.D8.AA.D9.85.E2.80.8C.D8.B9.D8.A7.D9.85.D9.84_DOS>وظایف سیستم‌عامل DOS</SPAN></FONT></FONT></H2> <UL> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>مدیریت منابع سیستم </FONT> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>برقرار کردن ارتباط بین استفاده کننده وسخت‌افزار </FONT> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>فراهم کردن امکانات لازم برای استفاده کننده جهت مدیریت فایل‌ها </FONT></LI></UL> <H2><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif"><FONT size=4>&nbsp;<SPAN class=mw-headline id=.D8.A7.D9.86.D9.88.D8.A7.D8.B9_.D9.81.D8.A7.DB.8C.D9.84_.D8.AF.D8.B1_.D8.B3.DB.8C.D8.B3.D8.AA.D9.85.E2.80.8C.D8.B9.D8.A7.D9.85.D9.84_dos>انواع فایل در سیستم‌عامل dos</SPAN></FONT></FONT></H2> <UL> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>فایل متنی (text file) </FONT> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>فایل داده (data file) </FONT> <LI><FONT face="times new roman,times,serif" size=4>فایل اجرایی (executable file) </FONT></LI></UL> <P>حداکثر طول نام یک فایل در داس هشت حرف و حداکثر این طول برای پسوند یک فایل سه حرف بود که این پسوند نوع فایل را نشان می دهد مثلا BAT&nbsp; برای فایل های دستوری و TXT یک فایل تکست و متنی است و فایل های EXE&nbsp; فایل های اجرایی است و SYS&nbsp; پسوند فایل های سیستمی است .</P> <P>&nbsp;</P></B></B></FONT></FONT></B> text/html 2010-11-03T18:55:01+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی جی دبلیو بی سیک gwbasic http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/12 <P>اولین زبان برنامه نویسی که آموختم gwbasic&nbsp; بود این زبان همراه دیسکت های داس می آمد و در آن سالها این زبان برنامه نویسی برای کارهای ساده تر و برای نو آموزان و پاسکال و سی ( نه آنی که شما الان با آنها آشنایی دارید ) زبانهای خیلی حرفه ای بودن </P> <P>از دستورات این برنامه می توان به دستوراتی چون if - circle- line&nbsp; نام برد مثلا شما می توانستید فرمانی لاین برای کشیدن خط استفاده کنید و داخلش را یک رنگ بدهید و با دادن نقطه ابتدا و نقطه انتها آن خط رسم می شد یا فرمانی سیرکل برای کشیدن یک دایره توپر یا توخالی استفاده میشد و کافی بود شما مرکزش و طول شعاع آن را و رنگ آنرا مشخص می کردید و توپر بودن یا نبود ن آنرا اعلام می کردید و آن دایره رسم میشد.</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> text/html 2010-11-02T20:30:37+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی مقاله ای کامل در مورد فلاپی دیسکت http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/11 <div style="direction:ltr;text-align:left"><DIV align=left> <TABLE class=wiki width="100%" align=left> <TBODY> <TR> <TD align=right> <TABLE class=communitytools width="100%"> <TBODY> <TR> <TD align=left></TD> <TD align=right><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR> <TR> <TD align=middle> <SCRIPT type=text/javascript></SCRIPT> <SCRIPT src="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js" type=text/javascript> </SCRIPT> <SCRIPT src="http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/pagead/test_domain.js"></SCRIPT> <SCRIPT src="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/render_ads.js"></SCRIPT> <SCRIPT>google_protectAndRun("render_ads.js::google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad);</SCRIPT> <SCRIPT>google_protectAndRun("ads_core.google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad);</SCRIPT> </TD></TR> <TR> <TD> <DIV id=wiki-header> <UL><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT></UL></DIV> <H1><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif>Floppy disk</FONT></H1> <DIV style="FLOAT: right; MARGIN: 0px 0px 1em 1em"> <DIV align=center><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><IMG alt="Floppy disk 5.25 inch.JPG" src="http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/d/d8/Floppy_disk_5.25_inch.JPG"><BR><SMALL>5 1/4 inch floppy disk</SMALL></FONT></FONT></DIV> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><EM>5¼ inch floppy disk; 8 inch floppy disk looks similar</EM> </FONT></FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <DIV align=center><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><IMG alt="Floppy disk 90mm.JPG" src="http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/3/34/Floppy_disk_90mm.JPG"><BR><SMALL>90mm floppy disk</SMALL></FONT></FONT></DIV> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><EM>3½ inch (90mm) floppy disk</EM> </FONT></FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT></P></DIV> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>A <STRONG>floppy disk</STRONG> is a type of data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence the name) magnetic media encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. The fact that the exterior aspect is not circular confuses some novice users. Floppy disks are read and written by a <STRONG>floppy disk drive</STRONG> or <STRONG>FDD</STRONG>, not to be confused with "fixed disk drive", which is an old IBM term for a hard disk drive. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H2><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Background</FONT></H2> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Floppy disks, also known as <STRONG>floppies</STRONG> or <STRONG>diskettes</STRONG> (a name chosen in order to be similar to the word "cassette"), were ubiquitous in the 1980s and 1990s, being used on home and personal computer platforms such as the Apple II, Commodore 64, and IBM PC to distribute software, transfer data between computers, and create small backups. Before the advent of the hard drive, floppy disks were often used to store a computer's operating system (OS) and application software (although many home computers had their OS kernels stored permanently in on-board ROM chips). </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>By the early 1990s, the increasing size of software meant that many programs were distributed on sets of floppies. Toward the end of the 1990s, software distribution gradually switched to CD-ROM, and higher-density backup formats were introduced (e.g., the Iomega Zip disk). With the arrival of mass Internet access, cheap ethernet, and USB "keydrives", the floppy was no longer necessary for data transfer either, and the floppy disk was essentially superseded. Mass backups were now made to high capacity tape drives such as DAT or streamers, or written to CDs or DVDs. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Nonetheless, manufacturers were reluctant to remove the floppy drive from their PCs, for backward compatibility, and because many companies' IT departments appreciated a built-in file transfer mechanism that always worked and required no device driver to operate properly. Apple Computer was the first mass-market computer manufacturer to eschew the floppy altogether with the release of their iMac model in 1998: it had no floppy disk drive. In March of 2003, Dell Computer made a similar decision to make floppy drives optional on its higher-end computers, a move hailed by some as the end of the floppy disk as a mainstream means of data storage and exchange. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H2><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>History </FONT></H2> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H3><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Origins, the 8-inch disk</FONT></H3> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>In 1967 IBM tasked their San Jose, California storage development center with a new task: develop a simple and inexpensive system for loading microcode into their 370 mainframes. The 370 was the first IBM machine to use semiconductor memory, and whenever the power was turned off it had to be re-loaded. Normally this task would be left to various tape drives which almost all 370 systems included, but tapes were large and slow. They wanted something more purpose-built that could be used to send out updates to customers for $5. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>David Noble, working under the direction of Alan Shugart, tried a number of existing solutions to see if he could develop a new-style tape for the purpose, but eventually gave up and started over. The result was a read-only 8"&nbsp;floppy they called the "memory disk", holding 80&nbsp;kilobytes (KB). The original versions were simply the disk itself, but dirt became a serious problem and they enclosed it in a plastic envelope lined with fabric that would pick up the dirt. The new device became a standard part of the 370 in 1971. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>In 1973 IBM released a new version of the floppy, this time on the 3740 Data Entry System. The new system used a different recording format that stored up to 256KB on the same disks, and was read-write. These drives became common, and soon were being used to move smaller amounts of data around, almost completely replacing magnetic tapes. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>When the first microcomputers were being developed in the 1970s, the 8"&nbsp;floppy found a place on them as one of the few "high speed" storage devices that could be afforded. The first microcomputer operating system, CP/M, originally shipped on 8"&nbsp;disks. However the drives were still very expensive, typically costing more than the computer they were attached to, so most machines of the era used cassette tape instead. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>By this time Alan Shugart had left IBM, moved to Memorex for a brief time, and then again in 1973 to found Shugart Associates. They started working on improvements to the existing 8"&nbsp;format, eventually creating a new 800KB system. However profits were hard to find, and in 1974 he was forced out of his own company. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H3><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 5¼-inch minifloppy</FONT></H3> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>In 1976 one of Shugart's employees, Jim Adkisson, was approached by An Wang of Wang Laboratories, who felt that the 8"&nbsp;format was simply too large for the desktop word processing machines he was developing at the time. After meeting in a bar in Boston, Adkisson asked Wang what size he thought the disks should be, and Wang pointed to a napkin and said "about that size". Adkisson took the napkin back to California, found it to be 5¼&nbsp;inches wide, and developed a new drive of this size storing 110KB. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 5¼"&nbsp;drive was considerably less expensive than 8"&nbsp;drives from IBM, and soon started appearing on CP/M machines. At one point Shugart was producing 4000 drives a day. By 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing 5¼"&nbsp;floppy drives, and the format quickly displaced the 8" from most applications. Tandon then introduced a double-sided drive, doubling the capacity, and a new "double density" format doubled it again, to 360KB. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>For most of the 1970s and 80s the floppy drive was the primary storage device for microcomputers. Since these micros had no hard drive, the OS would have to be loaded from one floppy disk, which was then removed and replaced by another one containing the application. Some machines using two disk drives (or one dual drive) enabled the user to leave the OS disk in place and simply change the application disks as needed. In 1984 along with the IBM PC/AT, the Quad Density disk appeared, providing 1.2 megabytes (MB) of storage. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H3><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 3½-inch microfloppy</FONT></H3> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Throughout the early 1980s the limitations of the 5¼"&nbsp;format were starting to become clear as machines grew in power. A number of solutions were developed, with drives at 2", 2.5", 3" and 3.5" all being offered by various companies. They all shared a number of advantages over the older format, including a small form factor and a rigid case with a slideable write-protect catch. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Amstrad incorporated a 3"&nbsp;160KB single-sided disk drive into their CPC and PCW lines, which was later "inherited" by the ZX Spectrum computer after Amstrad bought Sinclair Research. Media in this format remained expensive and it never caught on. Things changed dramatically in 1984 when Apple Computer selected the SONY 3.5"&nbsp;format (originally defined as 90mm) for their Macintosh computers, thereby forcing it to become the standard format in the US. By 1989 the 3.5" was outselling the 5¼", which then disappeared from the market over the next couple of years. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Like the 5¼", the 3.5"&nbsp;disk underwent an evolution of its own. They were originally offered in a 360KB single-sided and 720KB double-sided double-density format (the same as then-current 5¼"&nbsp;disks). A newer "high-density" format, displayed as "HD" on the disks themselves, was introduced on the Macintosh IIx series machines in the later half of the 1980s, storing 1.44MB of data. Another advance in the oxide coatings allowed for a new "extended-density" ("ED") format at 2.88MB introduced on the second generation NeXT Computers in 1991, but by the time it was available it was already too small to be a useful advance over 1.44, and never became widely used. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H2><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Structure </FONT></H2> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT></P> <DIV style="FLOAT: right; MARGIN: 0px 1em 1em 0px; FONT-STYLE: italic; TEXT-ALIGN: center"> <DIV align=center><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><IMG alt="5.25 in. floppy disk drive top.jpg" src="http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/0/0c/5.25_in._floppy_disk_drive_top.jpg"><BR><SMALL>5¼ inch floppy disk drive</SMALL></FONT></FONT></DIV><BR><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>5¼ inch floppy disk drive</FONT></DIV><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 5¼" disk had a large circular hole in the centre for the spindle of the drive and a small oval aperture in both sides of the plastic to allow the heads of the drive to read and write the data. The magnetic media could be spun by rotating it from the middle hole. A small notch on the right hand side of the disk would identify whether the disk was read-only or writeable, detected by a photo transistor above it. Another LED/phototransistor pair located near the centre of the disk could detect a small hole once per rotation, called the index hole, in the magnetic disk. It was used to detect the start of each track, and whether or not the disk rotated at the correct speed. Disks of this type were said to be <EM>soft sector</EM> disks. Very early 5¼" disks also had holes for each sector, and were termed <EM>hard sector</EM> disks. Inside the disk were two layers of fabric designed to reduce friction between the media and the outer casing, with the media sandwiched in the middle. The outer casing was usually a one-part sheet, folded double with flaps glued or spot-melted together. A catch was lowered into position in front of the drive to prevent the disk from emerging, as well as to raise or lower the spindle. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 3½" disk is made of two pieces of rigid plastic, with the fabric-media-fabric sandwich in the middle. The front has only a label and a small aperture for reading and writing data, protected by a spring-loaded metal cover, which is pushed back on entry into the drive. The reverse has a similar covered aperture, as well as a hole to allow the spindle to connect into a metal plate glued to the media. Two holes, bottom left and right, indicate the write-protect status and high-density disk correspondingly, a hole meaning protected or high density, and a covered gap meaning write-enabled or low density. The write-protect and high-density holes on a 3½" disk are spaced exactly as far apart as the holes in punched A4 paper (8 cm), allowing write-protected floppies to be clipped into European ring binders. A notch top right ensures that the disk is not inserted incorrectly, and an arrow top left indicates the direction of insertion. The drive usually has a button that, when pressed, will spring the disk out at varying degrees of force. Some would barely make it out of the disk drive; others would shoot out at a fairly high speed. In a majority of drives, the ejection force is provided by the spring that holds the cover shut, and therefore the ejection speed is dependent on this spring. Macintosh computers typically contained "Automatic" floppy disk drives, which used a motorized mechanism to eject disks. This mechanism was triggered through software, rather than a control on the drive itself. </FONT></P> <DIV style="FLOAT: left; MARGIN: 0px 1em 1em 0px; FONT-STYLE: italic; TEXT-ALIGN: center"> <DIV align=center><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif><FONT size=2><IMG alt="Floppy disk drive top (cover removed).jpg" src="http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/0/0f/Floppy_disk_drive_top_(cover_removed).jpg"><BR><SMALL>3½ inch (90mm) floppy disk drive with cover removed</SMALL></FONT></FONT></DIV><BR><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>3½ inch (90mm) floppy disk drive with cover removed</FONT></DIV> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The 3" disk bears a lot of similarity to the 3½" type, with some unique and somehow curious features. One example is the rectangular-shaped plastic casing, almost taller than a 3½" disk, but narrower, and more than twice as thick, almost the size of a standard compact audio cassette. This made the disk look more like a greatly oversized present day memory card or a standard PCMCIA notebook expansion card, rather than a floppy disk. Despite the size, the actual 3" magnetic-coated disk occupied less than 50% of the space inside the casing, the rest being used by the complex protection and sealing mechanisms implemented on the disks. Such mechanisms were largely responsible for the thickness, length and high costs of the 3" disks. On the Amstrad machines the disks were typically flipped over to use both sides, as opposed to being truly double-sided. Double-sided mechanisms were available, but rare. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H2><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Compatibility</FONT></H2> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Obviously, the three physical sizes of floppy disks are incompatible, and disks can only be loaded on the correct size of drive. However there are many more subtle incompatibilities within each form factor. Consider, for example the following Apple/IBM 'schism': Apple Macintosh computers can read, write and format IBM PC-format 3½" diskettes, provided suitable software is installed. However, many IBM-compatible computers use floppy disk drives that are physically unable to use Apple-format disks. For the details on this, see the section "More on floppy disk formats". </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Within the world of IBM-compatible computers, the three densities of 3½" floppy disks are partly compatible. Higher density drives are built to read, write and even format lower density media without problems, provided the correct media is used for the density selected. However, if by whatever means a diskette is formatted at the wrong density, the result is magnetically unstable with a risk of long-term data loss. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The situation was even more complex with 5¼" diskettes. The head of a 1.2M drive is narrower than that of a 360K drive, but will format, read and write 360K diskettes with apparent success. A blank 360K disk formatted and written on a 1.2M drive can be taken to a 360K drive without problems, similarly a disk formatted on a 360K drive can be used on a 1.2M drive. But a disk written on a 360K drive and updated on a 1.2M drive becomes permanently unreadable on any 360K drive, owing to the incompatibility of the track widths. There are several other 'bad' scenarios. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Prior to the problems with head and track size, there was a period when just trying to figure out which side of a "single sided" diskette was the right side was a problem. Both Radio Shack and Apple used 360K single sided 5¼" disks, and both sold disks labeled "single sided" and certified for use on only one side, even though they in fact were coated in magnetic material on both sides. The irony was that the disks would work on both Radio Shack and Apple machines, yet the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I computers used one side and the Apple II machines used the other. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>For quite a while in the 1980s, you could purchase a special tool called a "disk notcher" which would allow you to cut a second "write unprotect" notch in these diskettes and thus use them as "flippies" by putting them in the disk drive one side up and then the other – to get double the data storage capacity. For re-protecting a disk side, one would simply place a piece of opaque tape over the notch/hole in question. These "flippy disk procedures" were followed by owners of practically all home computer single sided disk drives. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2></FONT> <H2><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>More on floppy disk formats </FONT></H2> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>In general, data is written to floppy disks in a series of sectors, angular blocks of the disk, and in tracks, rings at a constant radius. The HD format of 3½" floppy disks use 512 bytes per sector, 18 sectors per track, 80 tracks per side and two sides, for a total of 1,474,560 bytes per disk (various disk controllers can vary these parameters at the user's request, increasing the amount of storage on the disk, although these formats may not be able to be read on machines with other controllers; Microsoft applications were often distributed on 'Microsoft distribution format' disks, a hack that allowed 1.68MB to be stored on a 1.44MB disk by formatting it with 21 sectors instead of 18). On the IBM PC but also on the MSX, Atari ST, Amstrad CPC, and most other microcomputer platforms, disks are written using a Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) + Constant Sector Capacity format. This means that the disk spins at a constant speed, and the sectors on the disk all hold the same amount of information. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>However, this is not an efficient way to use the disk surface. The sectors having a constant angular size, this means that the 512 bytes packed into a small space near the disk's center is spread out across much more space near the edge. A better technique would be to increase the number of sectors at the edge, from 18 to 30 for instance, thereby keeping the amount of physical disk space for storing each 512 byte sector constant. Apple implemented this solution in the early Macintosh computers by spinning the disk slower when the head was at the edge while keeping the data rate the same, allowing them to store 400KB per side, amounting to an extra 80KB on a double-sided disk. This higher capacity came with a serious disadvantage, though; the format required a special mechanism that was not used by other manufacturers, meaning that Mac disks could not be read on any other computers. Apple eventually gave up on the format and used standard HD drives on their later machines. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The Commodore Amiga computers used other kinds of floppy disk optimizations for extra storage. One was to not use sectors, and instead write an entire track as a single object with no stop or start information which normally takes up some 10% of the disk. They combined this with a variable sector format similar to the Mac, but without the complexity of the variable-speed drive (in retrospect, one wonders why Apple developed this solution at all). These changes add up to allowing considerably better storage capacity of about 880KB on a DD floppy, and 1.76MB on HD. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>Another machine using a similar "advanced" disk format was the British Acorn Archimedes, which stored 800KB on a 3½" DD floppy. </FONT> <P><FONT face=tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif size=2>The Commodore 128 also used a special 3½" 800KB disk format with its 1581 disk drive (which was compatible with all CBM 8-bit serial-bus based machines). Commodore actually started its tradition of special disk formats with the 5¼" disk drives accompanying its PET/CBM, VIC-20 and C64 home computers, like the 1540 and (better-known) 1541 drives used with the latter two machines. These disk drives used Commodore's in-house developed Group Code Recording, based on up to four different disk rotation speeds according to the track position. Eventually, however, Commodore had to give in to disk format standardization, and made its last 5¼" drives, the 1570 and 1571, compatible with Modified Frequency Modulation (MFM), to enable the C128 to work with CP/M disks from several vendors. Equipped with one of these drives, the C128 was able to access both C64 and CP/M disks, as it needed to, as well as MSDOS disks (using extra software), which was a crucial feature for some office work</FONT></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV> <SCRIPT src="http://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/pagead/test_domain.js"></SCRIPT> <SCRIPT src="http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/render_ads.js"></SCRIPT> <SCRIPT>google_protectAndRun("render_ads.js::google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad);</SCRIPT> <SCRIPT>google_protectAndRun("render_ads.js::google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad);</SCRIPT></div> text/html 2010-11-02T20:14:03+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی مشکلات سخت افزاری یا نرم افزاری خود را خبر دهید http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/10 <P>اگر کامپیوتر منزل یا محل کارتان مشکلی دارد ( نرم افزاری یا سخت افزاری ) برای من مشکلاتان را پیغام بگذارید مطمئن باشید بهترین راه حل مشکلتان را برایتان بازگو میکنم </P> <P>هر مشکلی که داشتید </P> <P>من در این وبلاگ سعی میکنم که به تمامی سئوالات شما جواب بدهم و این سئوال و جوابها را در وبلاگ خودم بیاورم تا دیگران هم بتوانند از آن استفاده کنند .</P> text/html 2010-11-02T20:01:20+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی فرمان دلیت چیست ؟ http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/9 <P>dell یک از فرمان های سیستم عامل داس بود </P> <P>با این فرمان شما میتوانستید یک یا چند فایل را حذف کنید </P> <P>در این فرمان شما باید نام و پسوند ( اکستنشن ) یک فایل را همراه فرمان dell می آوردید.</P> <P>برای حذف چند فایل باید از علامت * استفاده می کردید مثلا دستور dell *.exe&nbsp; تمام فایلهایی که پسوند آنها exe بود را حذف می کرد . البته شما باید در دایرکتوری که میخواهید فایلهایش را حذف کنید باشید . پس فرمانی اینگونه میشد که اول کامند (dell)&nbsp; بعد درایوی که فایل یا فایلها داخلش بود و بعد دایرکتوری که فایل بود و بعد اسم و یا اسامی فایلها را مشخص می کردید .</P> <P>این فرمانها هنوز هم استفاده دارند و بیشتر کسانی که کار سیستمی یا هک یا کرک می کنند هنوز به خوبی از آن استفاده می کردند </P> <P>راستی شما با این فرمانی نمی توانستید یک دایرکتوری را حذف کنید و باید جای آن از delltree&nbsp; یا اگر دایرکتوری را قبلا با فرمان dell&nbsp; خالی کرده بودید( یک بار باید فایلها را پاک کنید و بعد دایرکتوری را ) و بعد از آنکه هیچ فایلی داخل دایرکتور نبود با فرمانی rd&nbsp; میتوانستید دایرکتوری را حذف کنید .</P> <P>البته بعد&nbsp; از حذف می توانستید از فرمان undell برای بازگرداند فایلهای حذف شده استفاده کنید . که البته همیشه هم فایلها را بر نمی گرداند .</P> <P>راستی شاید شما ندانید دایرکتوری چیست </P> <P>میدانید الان اسمش شده فولدر و در موقع داس به مجموعه فایلها که تحت یک نام خاص در یک درایو و پارتیشن مشخص ثبت می شد دایرکتور می گفتند .</P> <P>مثلا همیشه اگر از درایو سی فهرست می گرفتید ( دایرکتوری می گرفتید ) یک دایرکتوری به نام داس بود که فرمانهای داس در داخل آن بود و شما می توانستید از آنها برای کارهای خاص استفاده می کردید.</P> <P>راستی گفتم دایرکتوری ( آن هم یک فرمانی داس بود ) و برای فهرست گرفتند از یک دایرکتور استفاده می شد مثل الان نیست که شما به محض آنکه روی یک فولدر کلیک می کنید محتوای آن را به صورت گرافیکی می بینید .</P> <P>با فرمانی دایرکتوری شما در چند ستون نام - پسوند - حجم - تاریخ آخرین تغییر را نشان میداد .</P> <P>من در یک پست تمام پسوند های این فرامین را جهت اطلاع خواهم آورد .</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> text/html 2010-11-02T19:53:44+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی FLOPPY DISK DRIVE http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/8 <P align=right>در این مقاله شما با ساختمان فلاپی دیسکتها بیتشرآشنا می شوید. راستی آن سالها فلاپی دیسکتهای تری ام 3M و ماکسل و ورباتین بیتشر استفاده میشد و در مقاله های بعدی در مورد فلاپی دیسک درایو صحبت می کنم .</P> <P align=right>راستی شما میدانید روش درست وراد کردن فلاپی در فلاپی دیسک درایو چگونه است </P> <DIV class=sense align=left sizset="14" sizcache="3"><BR> <P>A reusable magnetic storage medium introduced by IBM in 1971. It was called a floppy because the first varieties were housed in bendable jackets. Woefully undersized for today's use, it is no longer standard equipment on computers. However, until the early 1990s, the floppy was the primary method for distributing software and was widely used for backup. By the mid-1990s, it had mostly given way to the CD-ROM.<BR><BR><STRONG>A Circle of Double-Sided Magnetic Tape</STRONG><BR>Also called a "diskette," the floppy is a flexible circle of magnetic material similar to magnetic tape, except that both sides are used. The drive grabs the floppy's center and spins it inside its housing. The read/write head contacts the surface through an opening in the plastic shell or envelope. Floppies rotate at 300 RPM, which is from 10 to 30 times slower than a hard disk. They are also at rest until a data transfer is requested. Following are the three types developed, from newest to oldest, and their raw, uncompressed storage capacity.<BR><PRE sizset="14" sizcache="3"> <STRONG> Final</STRONG> <STRONG> Storage</STRONG> <STRONG>Housing Capacity Capacity Range Creator</STRONG> 3.5" rigid 1.44MB 400KB - 1.44MB Sony 3.5" rigid 2.88MB (See <A class=ref href="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/ed" target=_top jQuery1119204383265="33">ED</A>.) IBM 5.25" flexible 1.2MB 100KB - 1.2MB Shugart 8" flexible 500KB 100 - 500KB IBM </PRE><BR><BR> <P></P>Although floppy disks look the same, what is recorded on them determines their capacity and compatibility. Every new floppy must be "formatted," which records the sectors on the disk that hold the data. See <A class=ref href="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/format-program" target=_top jQuery1119204383265="34">format program</A>, <A class=ref href="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/magnetic-disk" target=_top jQuery1119204383265="35">magnetic disk</A> and <A class=ref href="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/high-capacity-floppy" target=_top jQuery1119204383265="36">high-capacity floppy</A>.<BR><BR><BR> <DIV class=computer_image><IMG alt=FLOPPY.GIF src="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/images/computer/FLOPPY.GIF" border=0 rel="nofollow"></DIV><BR><BR> <DIV class=caption_title><STRONG>Floppy Formats</STRONG></DIV><BR> <DIV class=caption>Although ubiquitous in their heyday, the 5.25" diskette was surpassed by the 3.5" disk in the 1980s, which gave way to the CD-ROM in the 1990s.</DIV><BR><BR><BR><BR> <DIV class=computer_image><IMG alt=FLOPPY35.GIF src="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/images/computer/FLOPPY35.GIF" border=0 rel="nofollow"></DIV><BR><BR> <DIV class=caption_title><STRONG>Anatomy of a Floppy</STRONG></DIV><BR> <DIV class=caption>There is quite a bit inside a floppy disk considering they can be purchased for less than a quarter.</DIV><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR> <DIV class=computer_image><IMG alt=_KAYPRO.JPG src="http://computer.yourdictionary.com/images/computer/_KAYPRO.JPG" border=0 rel="nofollow"></DIV><BR><BR> <DIV class=caption_title><STRONG>A Floppy-Based Computer</STRONG></DIV><BR> <DIV class=caption>Floppy-based computers such as this Kaypro portable were the rage in the late 1970s and early 1980s. You typically booted the computer with the operating system in the first drive and saved your data on the floppy in the </DIV></DIV> text/html 2010-11-02T19:35:50+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی فلاپی دیسکت چیست؟ http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/7 <P>میدانید الان دیگر فلاپی شاید روی کامپیوترنگذارندو شاید شما اصلابه آن احتیاج نداشته باشید ( البته من دیدم که لیست بیمه کارمند یک شرکت توسط فلاپی دیسکت به اداره سازمان تامین اجتماعی - بیمه - داده می شود )</P> <P>بله یک موقعه ای این تنها استوریج یا وسیله نگهداری و رد و بدل کردن اطلاعات بود و شاید باورتان نیاد که یک موقعه ای کامپیوتر هارد هم نداشتن و تنها وسیله ثبت اطلاعات همین فلاپی دیسکت ها بودن البته آنها هم در دو دو شکل بودن یک نوع آن پنج و یک چهارم اینچ بود و نوع دیگر سه و یک دوم اینچ ( نوعی که هنوز هم استفاده می شود ) و هر کدام هم دو نوع بود نوع های دن سی تی ( باظرفیت بالاتر ) و دبل دن سی تی ( باظرفیت پائین تر ) </P> <P>5و 4 /1اینچ های دن سیتی 1.2 مگابایت اطلاعات را نگهداری میکرد </P> <P>5و4/1 اینچ دبل دن سیتی 360 مگابایت اطلاعات را نگهداری میکرد </P> <P>3و 2/1 اینج های دن سیتی 1.44 مگابایت اطلاعات را نگهداری میکرد </P> <P>3و2/1 اینچ دبل دن سیتی 720 مگابایت اطلاعات را نگهداری میکرد </P> text/html 2010-11-02T19:28:02+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی کامپیوتر xt http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/6 <P>اولین کامپیوتری که فروختم ایکس تی بود ( الان شما پنتیوم 4 یا چند هسته ای دارید ) بله این کامپیوتر ها CPU&nbsp; 8088 و 8086&nbsp; داشت .</P> <P>مثلا کارخانه کمودور یک کامپیوتر داشت به نام PC10&nbsp; که سی پی یو آن همین 8088 بود .</P> <P>بعدا کامپیوتر های 80286 و بعد 80386 و بعد 80486 و بعد کامپیوتر های پنتیوم و بعد پنتیوم 3 و بعد پنتیوم 4 و بعدش را هم شما از من بهتر میدانید .</P> <P>در مطالب بعدی در مورد تاریخها را سیر تکامل را دقیقتر اعلام می نمایم .</P> <P>لطفا اگر مطالبی در این زمین دارید دریغ نکنید .</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> text/html 2010-11-02T19:21:55+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی اولین ویندوز مایکروسافت http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/5 <P>میدانید حدود سالهای 66 تا فکر میکنم 70- 71 ( میدانید اینها از خاطرات خودم بعدا تاریخ ها را از سایت مایکروسافت نگاه می کنم و دقیقش را براتون میگم) سیستم عامل داس بود که محیط آن فقط با کامند و کی برد کار می کرد و چیزهایی شبیه سیستم عامل های الان ( xp - vista -windows 7) صدا و گرافیک و ... را نداشت و فقط می توانستید باکی برد فرامینی را بنویسید و&nbsp; کارتان را از این طریق انجام دهید . </P> <P>اولین ویندوز ویندو 3 و 3.1 بود و البته یک سیسم عامل نبود بلکه یک شبه سیستم عامل بود و کارهای خیلی محدودی انجام می داد و یک کمی صدا و مالتی مدیا هم داشت و اولین باری که من صدا ازکامپیوتر شنیدم میخواستم گریه کنم ( از هیجان ) . اولین سی دی هم که من دیدم در مورد زندگی حیوانات بود که شاید اصلا شبیه این سی دی الان نبود .</P> <P>لطفا شما هم اگر خاطرات و یا دانستنی هایی در این مورد دارید به من بگویید.</P> <P>&nbsp;</P> text/html 2010-11-02T06:23:38+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی اولین لپ تاپی که فروختم http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/4 <P>من اولین لپ تاپی که فروختم که شاید حتی ازلحاظ ظاهری بسیار با لپ تاپ و نوت بوک های الان فرق می کرد</P> <P>لپ تاپ ( نوت بوک ) شارپ 4502 بود که عدد دو نشان میداد دو عدد فلاپی دیسکت3و1/2 اینچ داشت که گنجایش هر کدام فقط 720 کیلو بایت بود و اصلا هارد هم نداشت این نوت بوک یا لپ تاپ از طریق مرکز ماشینهای اداری ایران که نمایندگی شارپ داشت ارائه می گردید</P> <P>اصلا برای بعضی ها تصورش هم خیلی سخت است که بگویم که مانیتورش هم سی جی ائی تک رنگ بود یعنی یک لپ تاپ تک رنگ و بدون هارد تازه وزنش هم فکر کنم حدود هشت یا نه کیلو بود و همراه آن یک سی دی بوت داس که داخل آن برنامه ورد ( نه این وردی که شما می شناسید منظور ورد شارپ را می گویم که آقای میرصادقی و آقای شهید زاده نویسندگان آن بودن در مورد این برنامه ها بعدا صحبت می کنم .</P> <P>اکثر مشتریان این لپ تاپ دکترها بودن که اطلاعات مریض ها و مراجعه کنندگان را داخلش نگاه داری میکردند </P> <P>یکی از این دو فلاپی ها برای بوت شدن و لود برنامه و دیگری برای ضبط اطلاعات استفاده میشد .رنگ این لپ تاپ ها سفید بود .</P> <P>بعداز آن لپ تاپ شارپ 4602 و بعد 4641 آمد - که بعدا در مورد هر کدم توضیح می دهم </P> <P>&nbsp;</P> text/html 2010-10-30T22:48:49+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی مشخصات پرینتر سیکوشا مدل sl-270ai http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/3 <TABLE width="98%" border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left> <P><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>24-pin wide-carriage dot matrix printer</FONT> </P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Sophisticated Features</FONT> </P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Simple Operation </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Speed. Quality. Versatility. The demands haven't changed, but the technology has. Dot matrix printers have come a long way, and Seikosha's innovative SL-270 AI is setting the pace. Its 24-pin printhead assures crisp, letter quality output and finely detailed graphics. And, quiet though it is, the SL-270 AI can cruise through heavy-duty printing jobs at up to 324 cps. A choice of two emulations ensures compatibility with leading software packages, while the 9 resident fonts enable you to add that professional touch to your documents. Single- and dual- bin cut-sheet-feeders (CSF) are also available as optional equipment.</FONT> </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Function card </B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>A world first. This slim, plug-in card replaces the bewildering rows of DIP switches found on conventional printers. There's no need to look at the manual just to change print parameters since everything is explained on the card. One card per user speeds office work. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Dials</B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Three dial switches on the front panel make it easy to set paper size, font, character pitch and quality (Draft or LQ). The pushbutton controls and indicators are grouped on the right for greater convenience. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Two-way loading</B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Dot matrix printers are renowned for their versatility: they can accomodate a greater variety of paper sizes and types (single sheet, fanfold, multipart forms) than laser printers, but the SL-270AI goes even further. When equipped with the optional dual-bin CSF, it can handle both continuous form and single-sheet stock with amazing dexterity - thanks to paper parking and autoloading. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Tear off </B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Pushbutton tear-off speeds work and avoids waste by automatically aligning paper perforations with the tear bar. And the automatic bail control enables printing to start just 7mm from the leading edge. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Visible line feed</B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>This welcome function pauses printing and feeds the paper to allow on-the spot proofing. Printing resumes as soon as the button is released. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>High-speed skip</B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Speeds up printing of charts, tables, etc. </FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>64 KB buffer (opt.)</B></FONT></FONT></P> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Liberates your computer for other work.</FONT> <TABLE> <TBODY> <TR> <TD> <P><IMG height=183 alt="" hspace=6 src="http://www.avdcs.com/prod/dotm/do_descr/dot/sl270ai.jpg" width=226 vspace=6 border=1> </P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>AVD Computer Services Ltd<BR>PO Box 5142<BR>Reading RG7 1ZQ<BR>Tel +44 118 988 7300 Fax +44 118 988 7301</FONT></P> <P><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><A name=Specs><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Specifications</B></FONT> </A></FONT></P> <P> <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=5 border=1> <TBODY> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left width=128><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Print method</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left width=209><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>24-pin impact dot matrix</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Print direction</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>bidirectional</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Print speed </B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>324 cps (Elite, Draft), 108 cps (Elite, LQ)</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>270 cps (Pica, Draft), 90 cps (Pica, LQ)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Throughput</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>84 lines / minute (Pica, Draft 136 columns)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Line feed spacing/inch</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>1/6, 1/8, n/360</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Emulations</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>EPSON® LQ 1050, IBM® Proprinter XL24</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Print line</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>136 columns at 10 cpi</FONT> </TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Graphics Resolution</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>360 x 360 dpi max.</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Print buffer</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>10 KB (std.); 64 KB plug-in module (opt.)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Resident fonts</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Courier 10, Gothic 12, Orator, Prestige Elite,</FONT> <P><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Script, OCR-A, OCR-B, S. Roman, SH</FONT></P></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Character sets</B></FONT><BR> <P><BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Download characters</FONT></P></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Standard ASCII, IBM® extended</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>character sets I + II, International (17 sets)</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>{IBM® DOS 3.3 and OS/2 code pages}</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>128 (A mode), 256 (I mode)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Attributes</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Italic, condensed, bold, double-strike,</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>double-width, double-height, super/subscript,</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>justified, underlined</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Horizantal pitch control</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>10, 12, 15, 17, 20 cpi</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Paper feed</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Push tractor, friction, CSF (opt.)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Paper path Standard</B></FONT> <BR><BR><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Option</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Rear (fanfold), top (cut sheet),</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>semi autom. cut-sheet-feeder (standard)</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>full autom. cut-sheet-feeder (1-bin and 2-bin)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Paper weight</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>50 to 80 g / mì</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Paper size Fanfold</B></FONT> <BR><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Cut sheet</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>4 - 16 inch (width)</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>max. A3 landscape</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Multipart forms</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Original plus 3 duplicates</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>(total &lt; 0.3 mm)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=Text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Dual interfaces</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Centronics parallel and RS-232C (serial)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Ribbon</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Fabric or multistrike film (opt.)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Printhead life</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>300 million dots/pin</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Optional accessories</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Cut-sheet feeders (1-bin and 2-bin),</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>function card, 64 KB print buffer,</FONT> <FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>multistrike film ribbon, pull tractor</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Power supply</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>120 VAC / 60 Hz or</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>220 - 240 VAC / 50 Hz versions</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Power - </B>self-test</FONT> <BR><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>consumption </B>standby</FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>Draft 50 watts</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>16 watts</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Dimensions <BR>(W x H xD)</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>606 x 127 x 350 mm</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>{23-7/8 x 5 x 13-3/4 in.}</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Weight</B></FONT></TD> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>11 kg approx. (24.3 lbs)</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left colSpan=2><FONT class=subline face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2><B>Acoustics </B>55 dBA or less</FONT></TD></TR> <TR> <TD class=text vAlign=top align=left colSpan=2><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>EPSON® is registered trademark of S- EPSON Corporation.</FONT> <BR><FONT face="Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Sansserif" size=2>These Specifications are subject to change without notice.</FONT> </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE> text/html 2010-10-30T22:30:09+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی فرمان کپی در داس http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/2 <P>من در داس 3 به بالا میدانم </P> <P>فرمان کپی برای گرفتن بک آپ یک کپی از یک درایو به درایو دیگر یا از یک پارتیشن درایو به پارتیشن دیگر و یا از یک دایرکتور به دایرکتور و گاهی برای تغییر نام و گرفتن بک آپ استفاده می شد در داس ما موس نداشتیم و مانند ویندوز نمی توانستیم پنجره باز کنیم بلکه یک محیط و یک سری فرمانی داشتیم و وقتی داس بوت می شد یک پرامت می آمد که معلوم بود آماده گرفتن فرمان است </P> <P style="DIRECTION: ltr" align=left>C:\&gt;</P> <P style="DIRECTION: ltr" align=right>این نشان میداد که ما در درایو سی و روت هستیم </P> <P style="DIRECTION: ltr" align=left>c:\dos&gt;</P> <P style="DIRECTION: ltr" align=right>این نشان میداد که ما در درایو سی و دایرکتور داس هستیم </P> <P style="DIRECTION: ltr" align=left>c:\dos&gt; copy *.exe c:\zamani\*.exe</P> <P style="DIRECTION: rtl" align=right>این تمام فایلهای که در داس پسوند اگز داشتن که آن موقعه به آنها فایلهای اجرایی می گفتند را در درایو سی دایرکتور زمانی به همان نام ها کپی می کرد </P> <P style="DIRECTION: rtl" align=right>این دستور فرماین و شکلهای دیگری نیز داشت که در پست بعد به صورت کامل درمورد آن صحبت می کنم </P> text/html 2010-10-30T22:19:42+01:00 zamanilast.mihanblog.com داریوش زمانی صفحات دفتر چه خاطر صنعت انفورماتیک ایران را ورقی بزنیم http://zamanilast.mihanblog.com/post/1 <P>این اولین پست این وبلاگ است و در آن قصد دارم از گذشته ها ی انفورماتیک ایران از سخت افزارهای قدیمی و نرم افزار های قدیم بگویم اگر نظری دارید و یا خاطره ای یا نوشته ای که بدرد این وبلاگ بخورد ارسال فرمائید </P> <P>الان اولین ساعت یکشنبه نهم آبان یکهزار و سیدص و هشتاد ونه و من داریوش زمانی هستم </P>